Middle and Late Miocene palynological biozonation of the south-western part of Central Paratethys (Croatia)

Main Article Content

Koraljka Bakrač
Georg Koch
Jasenka Sremac


Middle and Late Miocene palynological biozonation of the south-western parts of Central Paratethys (Croatia) is presented based on organic-walled phytoplankton. Nine characteristic palynozones of regional palynostratigraphic range are recognized, e.g. Early Badenian (Langhian) Cribroperidinium tenuitabulatum (Cte), Badenian (Late Langhian – Earliest Serravallian) Unipontidinium aquaeductum (Uaq), Late Badenian (Early Serravallian)  Cleistosphaeridium placacanthum (Cpl), Sarmatian (Middle and Late Serravallian) Polysphaeridium zoharyi – Lingulodinium machaerophorum (Pzo-Lma), early Early Pannonian s.l. Mecsekia ultima – Spiniferites bentorii pannonicus (MulSpa), middle Early Pannonian s.l. Spiniferites bentorii oblongus (Sob), late Early Pannonian s.l. Pontiadinium pecsvaradensis (Ppe), early Late Pannonian s.l. Spiniferites validus (Sva), and late Late Pannonian s.l. Galeacysta etrusca (Get). As inferred from the regional palynostratigraphic correlation, the signals of two transgressions after the isolation of Paratethys during the Sarmatian are recognised: the first one in the late Early Pannonian, when Mediterranean dinoflagellates migrated into the Pannonian Basin, and the second one in the Late Pannonian, when endemic Paratethyan taxa migrated into the Mediterranean.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Original Scientific Papers


ANDERSON, D.M., TAYLOR, C.D. & ARMBRUST, E.V. (1987): The effects of darkness and anaerobiosis on dinofl agellate cyst germination.– Limnol. Oceanogr., 32, 340–351.

AVANIĆ, R., PAVELIĆ, D., BRKIĆ, M., MIKNIĆ, M. & ŠIMUNIĆ, AL. (1995): Lapori i biokalkareniti Vejalnice.– In: ŠIKIĆ, K. (ed.): Geološki vodič Medvednice. Inst. za geol. istraž., INA-Industrija nafte d.d., Zagreb, 159–164.

BAKRAČ, K. (1999): Palinologija pontskih naslaga Medvednice [Palinology of Pontian sediments from Mt. Medvednica – in Croatian, with English Summary].– Unpubl. MSc Thesis, University of Zagreb,
93 p.

BAKRAČ, K. (2005): Palinološka karakterizacija naslaga srednjeg i gornjeg miocena jugozapadnog dijela Panonskog bazena [Palynology of the Middle and Upper Miocene deposits from the south-western parts of the Pannonian Basin – in Croatian, with English Summary].– Unpubl. PhD Thesis, University of Zagreb, 173 p.

BAKRAČ, K., HAJEK-TADESSE, V., MIKNIĆ, M., GRIZELJ, A., HEĆIMOVIĆ, I. & KOVAČIĆ, M. (2010): Evidence for Badenian local sea level changes in the proximal area of the North Croatian Basin.– Geol. Croat., 63/3, 259–269. doi: 104154/gc.2010.21

BALDI, T. (1980): The early history of the Paratethys.– Bulletin of the Hungarian Geological Society, 110/3–4, 468–471.

BALTES, N. (1967): Microfl ora from Miocene salt-bearing formation of the pre-Carpathian depression (Rumania).– Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 2, 183–194.

BALTES, N. (1969): Distribution stratigraphique des dinofl agelles et des acritarches tertiaires en Roumanie.– In: BRONNIMANN, P. & RENZ, H.H. (eds.): 1st International Conference on Planktonic Microfossils, 1967, E.J. Brill, Leiden, Geneva, Proceedings, 1, 26–45.

BIFFI, U. & MANUM, S.B. (1988): Late Eocene-Early Miocene dinoflagellate cyst stratigraphy from the Marche Region (central Italy).– Boll. Soc. Geol. Ital., 27/2, 163–212.

BRINKHUIS, H. (1994): Late Eocene to Early Oligocene dinoflagellate cysts from the Priabonian type-area (northeast Italy): biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental interpretation.– Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 107, 121–163.

COSTA, L.I. & MANUM, S.B. (1988): The description of the interregional zonation of the Paleogene (D1-D15) and the Miocene (D16-D20).– In: VINKEN, R. (eds.): The northwest European Tertiary basin: results of the International Geological Correlation Programme, Project No. 124, Geologisches Jahrbuch, Reiche A, 100, 321–330.

ĆORIĆ, S., PAVELIĆ, D., ROGL, F., MANDIC, O., VRABAC, S., AVANIĆ, R. & VRANJKOVIĆ, A. (2009): Revised Middle Miocene datum for initial marine flooding of North Croatian Basins (Pannonian Basin System, Central Paratethys).– Geol. Croat., 62/1, 31–43.

DALE, B. (1996): Dinofl agellate cyst ecology: modeling and geological applications.– In: JANSONIUS, J. & MCGREGOR, D.C. (eds.): Palynology: Principles and Applications. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation, Dallas, 1249–1276.

DE VERNAL, A., GOYETTE, C. & RODRIGUES, C.G. (1989): Contribution palynostratigraphique (dinokystes, pollen et spores) a la connaissance de la mer de Champlain: coupe de Saint Cezaire, Quebec.– Can. J. Earth. Sci., 26, 2450–2464.

DE VERTEUIL, L. & NORRIS, G. (1996): Miocene dinoflagellate strati graphy and systematics of Maryland and Virginia.– Micropaleontology, 42, Suppl., 1–172.

ELLEGAARD, M. (2000): Variations in dinofl agellate cyst morphology under conditions of changing salinity during the last 2000 years in the Limfjord, Denmark.– Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 109, 65–81.

GORIN, G.E. & STEFFEN, D. (1991): Organic facies as a tool for recording eustatic variations in marine fi ne-grained carbonates – example of the Berriasian stratotype at Berrias (Ardeche, SE France).–Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 85, 303–320.

H., VAN DAM, J., VEIZER, J., VAN KOLFSCHOTEN, TH., & WILSON, D. (2004): A Geologic Time Scale 2004.– Cambridge University Press, 500 p.

GRILL, R. (1943): Über mikropalaontologische Gliederungsmoglichkeiten im Miozan des Wiener Becken.– Mitteilungen der Reichsanstalt fur Bodenforschung, 6, 33–44.

HAQ, B.U., HARDENBOL, J. & VAIL, P.R. (1987): Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic (250 million years ago to Present).–Science, 235, 1156–1167.

HAQ, B.U., HARDENBOL, J. & VAIL, P.R. (1988): Mesozoic and Cenozoic chronostratigraphy and cycles of sea level changes.– In: WIL GUS, C.K., HASTINGS, B.S., KENDALL, C.G.ST.C., POSA MENTIER, H.W., ROSS, C.A. & VAN WAGONER, J.C. (eds.): Sea-level changes – an integrated approach. SEMP Special Publications, 42, 71–108.

HARDENBOL, J., THIERRY, J., FARLEY, M.B., JACQUIN, T., DE GRACIANSKY, P.C. &VAIL, P.R. (1998): Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequence chronostratigraphic framework of Europeau basins.–In: GRACIANSKY, P.C. DE, HARDENBOL, J., JACQUIN, T. & VAIL, P.R. (eds): Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy of European basins. SEPM Spec. Publ., 60, 3–13.

HARZHAUSER, M. & PILLER, W.E. (2007): Benchmark data of a changing sea – palaeogeography, palaeobiogeography and events in the Central Paratethys during the Miocene.– Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl, 253, 8–31. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2007.03.031

HOCHULI, P.A. (1978): Palynologische Untersuchungen im Oligozan und Untermiozan der Zentralen und Westlichen Paratethys.– Beitrage zur Palaontologie von Osterreich, 4, 1–132.

HUDAČKOVA, N., HOLCOVA., K., ZLINSKA., A., KOVAČ, M. & NAGYMAROSY, A. (2000): Peleoecology and eustasy: Miocene 3rd order cycles of relative sea-leval changes in the Western Carpathian.–
North Slovak Geol. Mag., 6, 95–100.

JARAMILLO, C.A. & OBOH-IKUENOBE, F.E. (1999): Sequence stratigraphic interpretations from palynofacies, dinocyst and lithological data of Upper Eocene–Lower Oligocene strata in southern Mississippi and Alabama, U.S. Gulf Coast.– Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 145/4, 259–302.

JIMENEZ-MORENO, G., HEAD, M.J. & HARZHAUSER, M. (2006): Early and Middle Miocene dinoflagellate cyst stratigraphy of the central Paratethys, central Europe.– J. Micropalaeontol., 25, 113–139.

JIMENEZ-MORENO. G., RODRIGUEZ-TOVAR, F.J., PARDO-IGUZQUIZA, E., FAUQUETTE, S., SUC, J.-P. & MULLER, P. (2005): High-resolution palynological analysis in late early–middle Miocene core from the Pannonian Basin, Hungary: climatic changes, astronomical forcing and eustatic fluctuations in the Central Paratethys.–Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 216, 73– 97.

JUHASZ, G. (1994): Sedimentological and stratigraphical evidences of water-level fl uctuations in the Pannonian Lake.– Foldtani Kozlony, 123, 379–398.

KOLLANYI, K. (2000): Ujabbadatok a magyarorszagi pannoniai koru nannoplankton elterjedesehez [New data to the distribution of Pannonian nannoplanktonic fl ora – in Hungarian].– Foldt. Kozlony,
130/3, 497–527.

KOULI, K., BRINKHUIS, H. & DALE, B. (2001): Spiniferites cruciformis: a freshwater dinofl agellate cyst.– Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 133, 273– 286.

KOVAČ, M., ANDREYEVA-GRIGOROVICH, A., BAJRAKTAREVIĆ, Z., BRZOBOHATY, R., FILIPESCU, S., FODOR, L., HARZHAUSER, M., NAGYMAROSY, A., OSZCZYPKO, N., PAVELIĆ, D., ROGL, F., SAFTIĆ, B., SLIVA, Ľ. & STUDENCKA, B. (2007): Badenian evolution of the Central paratethys sea: paleogeography, climate and eustatic sea level changes.– Geol. Carpath., 58, 579–606.

KOVAČ M., BARATH, I., HARZHAUSER, M., HLAVATY, I. & HUDAČKOVA N. (2004): Miocene depositional systems and sequence stratigraphy of the Vienna Basin.– Cour. Forsch. Inst. Senckenberg, 246, 187–212.

LENTIN, J.K. & WILLIAMS, G.L. (1998): Fossil dinoflagellates: index to genera and species, 1998 edition.– AASP, Contribution series, 34, p. 817

LEWIS, J., ELLEGAARD, M., HALLETT, R., HARDING, I. & ROCHON, A. (2003): Environmental control of cyst morphology in Gonyaulacoid dinoflagellates.– In: MATSUOKA, K., YOSHIDA, M., IWATAKI, M. (eds.): Dino7, 7th International Conference on Modern and fossil Dinoflagellates, Abstract Volume. Additional Abstract.

LEWIS, J., ROCHON, A. & HARDING, I. (1999): Preliminary observations of cyst-theca relationships in Spiniferites ramosus and Spiniferites membranaceus (Dinophyceae).– Grana, 38, 113–124.

LUČIĆ, D., SAFTIĆ, B., KRIZMANIĆ, K., PRELOGOVIĆ, E., BRITVIĆ, V., MESIĆ, I. & TADEJ, J. (2001): The Neogene evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the Pannonian Basin in Croatia.– Mar. Petrol. Geol., 18, 133–147.

MAGYAR, I., GEARY, D.H. & MULLER, P. (1999a): Paleogeographic evolution of the Late Miocene Lake Pannon in Central Europe.–Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 147, 151–167.

MAGYAR, I., GEARY, D., SUTŐ-SZENTAI, M., LANTOS, M. & MULLER, P. (1999b): Integrated bio-, magneto and chronostratigraphic correlations of the Late Miocene Lake Pannon deposits.– Acta Geologica Hungarica, 42/1, 5–31.

MARRET, F. & ZONNEVELD, K.A.F. (2003): Atlas of modern organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst distribution.– Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 125/1–2, 1–200. doi:10.1016/S0034-6667(02)00229-4

MARTINI, E. (1971): Standard Tertiary and Quaternary calcareous nannoplankton zonation.– In FARINACCI, A. (ed.): Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Planktonic Microfossils Roma: Rome (Ed. Tecnosci.), 2, 739–785.

MATTHIESSEN, J. & BRENNER, W. (1996): Chlorococcalalgen und Dinofl agellaten-Zysten in rezenten Sedimenten des Greifswalder Boddens (sudliche Ostsee).– Senckenbergiana Maritima, 27, 33–48.

MUDIE, P.J., ROCHON, A., AKSU, A.E. & GILLESPIE, H. (2002): Dinoflagellate cysts, freshwater algae and fungal spores as salinity indicators in Late Quaternary cores from Marmara and Black seas.–
Mar. Geol., 190, 203– 231.

MULLER, P., GEARY, D.H. & MAGYAR, I. (1999): The endemic molluscs of the Late Miocene Lake Pannon: their origin, evolution, and family level taxonomy.– Lethaia, 32, 47–60.

NEHRING, S. (1994): Spatial distribution of dinoflagellate resting cysts in recent sediments of Kiel Bight, Germany (Baltic Sea).– Ophelia, 39/2, 137–158.

PAPP, A. (1951): Das Pannon des Wiener Beckens.– Mitteilungen der Geologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, 39–41 (1946–1948), 99–193.

PAVELIĆ, D., KOVAČIĆ, M., MIKNIĆ, M., AVANIĆ, R., VRSALJKO, D., BAKRAČ, K., TIŠLJAR, J., GALOVIĆ, I. & BORTEK, Ž. (2003): The Evolution of the Miocene Environments in the Slavonian Mts. Area (Northern Croatia).– In: VLAHOVIĆ, I. & TIŠLJAR, J. (eds.): Evolution of Depositional Environments from the Palaeozoic to the Quaternary in the Karst Dinarides and the Pannonian Basin. 22nd IAS Meeting of Sedimentology, Opatija – September 17–19, 2003, Field Trip Guidebook, 173–181, Zagreb.

PILLER,W.E. & HARZHAUSER, M. (2005). The myth of the brackish Sarmatian Sea.– Terra Nova, 17, 450–455.

PILLER, W., HARZHAUSER, M. & MANDIC, O. (2007): Miocene Central Paratethys stratigraphy – current status and future directions.–Stratigraphy, 4, 151–168.

POPESCU, S.-M., DALESME, F., JOUANNIC, G., ESCARGUEL, G., HEAD, M.J., MELINTE-DOBRINESCU, M.C., SUTŐ-SZENTAI, M., BAKRAČ, K., CLAUZON, G. & SUC, J.-P. (2009): Galeacysta etrusca, dinoflagellate cyst marker of Paratethyan influxes into the Mediterranean Sea before and after the peak of the Messinian Salinity Crisis.– Palynology, 33/2, 105–134.

POPOV, S.V., SHCHERBA, I.G., ILYINA, L.B., NEVESSKAYA, L.A., PARAMONOVA, N.P., KHONDKARIAN, S. O. & MAGYAR, I. (2006): Late Miocene to Pliocene palaeogeography of the Paratethys and its relation to the Mediterranean.– Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 238, 91–106.

POWELL, A.J. (1986a): Latest Paleogene and earliest Neogene dinoflagellate cysts from the Lemme section, northwest Italy.– In: WRENN, J.H., DUFFIELD, S.L. & STEIN, J.A. (eds.): Papers from the First Symposium on Neogene Dinofl agellate Cyst Biostratigraphy. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists, Contributions Series, 17, 83–104.

POWELL, A.J. (1986b): A dinoflagellate cyst biozonation for the late Ologocene to middle Miocene succession of the Langhe region, Northwest Italy.– In: WRENN, J.H., DUFFIELD, S.L. & STEIN, J.A. (eds.): Papers from the First Symposium on Neogene Dinoflagellate Cyst Biostratigraphy. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists, Contributions Series, 17, 105–128.

POWELL, A.J. (1986c): The stratigraphic distribution of late Miocene dinoflagellate cysts from the Castellanian Superstage stratotype, northwest Italy.– American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists, Contributions Series, 17, 129–149.

PROSS, J. (2001): Paleo-oxygenation in Tertiary epeiric seas: evidence from dinoflagellate cysts.– Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 166, 369–381.

ROGL, F. (1996): Stratigraphic correlation of the Paratethys Oligocene and Miocene.– Mitt. Gesell. Geol. Bergbaustud. Osterr., 41, 65–73.

ROGL, F. (1998): Paleogeographic Considerations for Mediterranean and Paratethys Seaways (Oligocene to Miocene).– Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 99A, 279–310.

ROGL, F., SPEZZAFERRI, S. & ĆORIĆ, S. (2002): Micropalaeontology and biostratigraphy of the Karpatian-Badenian transition (Early -Middle Miocene boundary) in Austria (Central Paratethys).–Courier Forsch. Inst. Senckenberg, 237, 47–67.

ROGL, F., ĆORIĆ, S., HOHENEGGER, J., PERVESLER, P., ROETZEL, R., SCHOLGER, R., SPEZZAFERRI, S. & STINGL, K. (2007): Cyclostratigraphy and transgressions at the Early/Middle Miocene (Karpatian/Badenian) boundary in the Austrian Neogene basins (Central Paratethys).– Scripta Fac. Sci. Natur. Univ. Masarykianae Brunensis, ser. Geology, 36, 7–13.

SACCHI, M. & HORVATH, F. (2002): Towards a new time scale for the Upper Miocene continental series of the Pannonian basin (Central Paratethys).– EGU Stephan Mueller Special Publication Series,
3, 79–94.

SOLIMAN, A. & PILLER, W.E (2007): Dinofl agellate cysts at the Karpatian/Badenian boundary of Wagna (Styrian Basin, Austria).– Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt-A 47, 405–415.

STOVER, L.E., BRINKHUIS, H., DAMASSA, S.P., DE VERTEUIL, L., HELBY, R.J., MONTEIL, E., PARTRIDGE, A., POWELL, A.J., RIDING, J.B., SMELROR, M. & WILLIAMS, G.L. (1996): Mesozoic–Tertiary dinoflagellates, acritarchs and prasinophytes.– In: JANSONIUS, J. & McGREGOR, D.C. (eds.): Palynology: Principles and Applications. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation, Dallas, 641–750.

SUTŐ-SZENTAI, M. (1985): Die Verbreitung organischer Mikroplankton-Vergesellschaftungen in dem pannonischen Schichten Ungarns.–In: PAPP, A., JAMBOR, A. & STEININGER, F.F. (eds.): Pannonien (Slavonien und Serbien) Chronostratigraphie und Neostratotypen, Miozan der Zentralen Paratethys.– Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, 517–533.

SUTŐ-SZENTAI, M. (1988): Microplankton zones of organic skeleton in the Pannonian s.l. stratum complex and in the upper part of the Sarmatian strata.– Acta. Bot. Hung., 34/3–4, 339–356.

SUTŐ-SZENTAI, M. (1989): Mikroplanktonfl ora der pontischen (oberpannonischen) Bildungen Ungarns.– In: STEVANOVIĆ, P., NEVESSKAYA, L., MARINESCU, F., SOKAČ, A. & JAMBOR, A. (eds.): Chronostratigraphie und Neostratotypen: Neogen der Westlichen (“Zentrale”) Paratethys. Bd. VIII: Pontien. Jazu and Sanu, Zagreb–Belgrade, 842–869.

SUTŐ-SZENTAI, M. (1991): Szervezvazu mikroplankton zonak magyarorszag pannoniai retegosszleteben. Ujabb adatok a zonaciorol es a dinofl agellatak evoluciojarol (abstract: Organic – walled microplancton zones of the Pannonian in Hungary. New data on the zonation and dinofl agellate evolution).– Őslenytani vitak Discussiones Palaeontologicae, 36–37, 157–200.

SUTO-SZENTAI, M. (1994): Microplankton associations of organic skeleton in the surroundings of Villany Mts.– Foldtani Kozlony, 124/4, 451–478.

SUTŐ-SZENTAI, M. (2005): Mikroszkoppal az ősi elet nyomaban (Tracing ancient life with a microscope).– In: FAZEKAS I. (ed.): A komloi terseg termeszeti es kulturtorteneti oroksege (Natural and Cultural Heritage of Komlo District), regioGrafo Bt., Komlo, 39–56.

SUTŐ-SZENTAI, M. (2011): Az Egerag-7. es Bosta-1. szamu furasok pannoniai dinofl agellata egyuttesei (Del-Dunantul) Pannonian dinoflagellate associations from boreholes Egerag No. 7 and Bosta No. 1 (Southern Hungary).– e-Acta Naturalia Pannonica, 2/1, 111–133.

ŠIKIĆ, K., BASCH, O. & ŠIMUNIĆ, A. (1979): Osnovna geološka karta SFRJ 1:100.000. Tumač za list Zagreb L33-80 [Basic geological map of SFRJ 1:100.000. Geology of the Zagreb sheet − in Croatian].–
Institut za geološka istraživanja Zagreb (1972), Savezni geološki zavod, Beograd.

TAPPAN, H. (1980): The Paleobiology of Plant Protists. Freeman, 1028 p.

TYSON, R.V. (1987): The genesis and palynofacies characteristics of marine petroleum source rocks.– In: BROOKS, J. & FLEET, A.J. (eds): 1987. Marine Petroleum Source Rocks. Geol. Soc. Spl. Publ., 26, 47–67.

TYSON, R.V. (1995): Sedimentary Organic Matter. Organic Facies and Palynofacies.– Chapman and Hall, London, 615 p.

VASILIEV, I., BAKRAČ, K., KOVAČIĆ, M., ABDUL AZIZ, H. & KRIJGSMAN, W. (2007): Paleomagnetic results from the Sarmatian/Pannonian boundary in north-eastern Croatia (Vranović section; Našice quarry.– Geol. Croat., 60/2, 151–163.

VRSALJKO, D. (1999): The Pannonian Palaeoecology and Biostratigraphy of Mollusca from Kostanjek-Medvednica Mt., Croatia.– Geol. Croat., 52/1, 9–27.

VRSALJKO, D., PAVELIĆ, D. & BAJRAKTAREVIĆ, Z. (2005): Stratigraphy and palaeogeography of Miocene deposits from the marginal area of Žumberak Mt.and Samoborsko Gorje Mts. (North western Croatia).– Geol. Croat., 58/2, 133–150.

WALL, D., DALE, B. & HARADA, K. (1973): Descriptions of new fossil dinoflagellates from the Late Quaternary of the Black Sea.– Micropaleontology, 19, 18–31.

WALL, D., DALE, B., LOHMANN, G.P. & SMITH, W.K. (1977): The environmental and climatic distribution of dinoflagellate cysts in modern marine sediments from regions in the North and South Atlantic oceans and adjacent seas.– Mar. Micropaleontol., 2, 121–200.

ZEVENBOOM, D. (1995): Dinofl agellate cysts from the Mediterranean Late Oligocene and Miocene. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Utrecht, Cip-Gegevens Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Den Haag, The Netherlands, 221 p